KUNKA ENGINEERING, inc.

4250 E. Camelback Road., Suite 485 K Phoenix, Arizona  85018    Telephone:  (602) 840-1701   Fax:  (602) 840-1702   email:   info@kunka.com

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Engineering Doo-Dads

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Heat Stroke Chart          Wind Chill Chart           Reference Table         Noise Center           Plumbing Formulas

 

Heat Stroke Chart

Air Temperature (degrees Fahrenheit)

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

Relative Humidity

Apparent Temperature

0%

64

69

73

78

83

87

91

95

99

103

107

10%

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

111

116

20%

66

72

77

82

87

93

99

105

112

120

130

30%

67

73

78

84

90

96

104

113

123

135

148

40%

68

74

79

86

93

101

110

123

137

151

50%

69

75

81

88

96

107

120

135

150

60%

70

76

82

90

100

114

132

149

70%

70

77

85

93

106

124

144

80%

71

78

86

97

113

136

Heatstroke imminent

90%

71

79

88

102

122

  

Heatstroke possible

100%

72

80

91

108

Heat exhaustion possible

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Wind Chill Chart

WIND CHILL INDEX

WIND

WHAT THE THERMOMETER READS (degrees F.)

SPEED

50

40

30

20

10

0

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60

MPH

WHAT IT EQUALS IN ITS EFFECT ON EXPOSED FLESH

CALM

50

40

30

20

10

0

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60

5

48

37

27

16

6

-5

-15

-26

-36

-47

-57

-68

10

40

28

16

4

-9

-21

-33

-46

-58

-70

-83

-95

15

36

22

9

-5

-18

-36

-45

-58

-72

-85

-99

-112

20

32

18

4

-10

-25

-39

-53

-67

-82

-96

-110

-121

25

30

16

0

-15

-29

-44

-59

-74

-88

-104

-118

-133

30

28

13

-2

-18

-33

-48

-63

-79

-94

-109

-125

-140

35

27

11

-4

-20

-35

-49

-67

-82

-98

-113

-129

-145

40

26

10

-6

-21

-37

-53

-69

-85

-100

-116

-132

-148

Little danger if properly clothed.

Danger of freezing exposed flesh.

Great danger of freezing exposed flesh.

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Reference Table

wpe21.jpg (31186 bytes)

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Noise Center

wpe16.jpg (2903 bytes)             

                                 

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Useful Plumbing Design Formulas, Tables & Tips.

Courtesy of the American Society of Plumbing Engineers, Phoenix Chapter

Domestic Water

2.31 feet of head = 1 psi

1 foot of head = .433 psi

28" of water column = 1 psi

1 gallon weighs 8.33 pounds

7.5 gallons occupy 1 cubic foot

1 gallon occupies 231 cubic inches

 

Domestic Hot Water                                                                   

shadowbox.jpg (746 bytes)   1 BTU will raise 1 pound of water 1F.   

shadowbox.jpg (746 bytes)   1 BTU will raise .12 gallons of water 1F.

shadowbox.jpg (746 bytes)   1 KW = 3413 BTUF.                 

TYPE

HARDNESS

(parts per million)

HARDNESS

(parts per million)

Soft

0 - 49

0 - 3

Fairly Soft

50 - 99

3 - 6

Fairly Hard

100 - 149

6 - 9

Hard

150 - 249

9 - 14.5

Very Hard

250 plus

14.5 plus

Water Heating Calculations

shadowbox.jpg (746 bytes)   Natural Gas

      BTU/Input = GPH x 8.25 x Temp.Rise x 1.0 - divided by -%Efficiency of heater

      Gas/Per/Hour = Btu/Hr Input x %Efficiency - divided by - Temp.Rise x 8.25

shadowbox.jpg (746 bytes)   Electric

      KW = GPH x 8.25 x Temp.Rise x 1.0 - divided by - 3413 Or... GPH x Temp.Rise - divided by - 414

      Gal/Per/Hour = KW x %3413 - divided by - Temp.Rise x 8.25 Or... KW x 414 - divided by - Temp.Rise

Natural Gas

shadowbox.jpg (746 bytes)   1 psi = 28" water column

shadowbox.jpg (746 bytes)   1 psi = 16 ounces

shadowbox.jpg (746 bytes)   1 psi - 2.036 inches of mercury

BTU CONTENT of VARIOUS FUELS

Fuel

Amount

BTU

Coal

1 pound

10,000 - 15,000

Coal

1 ton

25,000,000

Electricity

1 kilowatt

3,412

#2 Oil

1 gallon

138,500

Butane

1 pound

21,300

Butane

1 gallon

102,600

Butane

1 cubic foot

3,260

Natural Gas

1 cubic foot

1,000

Propane

1 pound

21,600

Propane

1 gallon

91,000

Propane

1 cubic foot

2,570

Storm Drainage

shadowbox.jpg (746 bytes)   1 inch rainfall rate = .0104 gallons per minute per square foot

shadowbox.jpg (746 bytes)   1 cubic foot per second = 448.831 gallons per minute

shadowbox.jpg (746 bytes)   Formula (rational method) to determine storm runoff on a Site Q = CIA Q = Runoff in cubic feet per second C = Coefficient of runoff I =          Intensity of rainfall in inches per hour A = Drainage area in acres (43,560 square feet per acre)

RUNOFF COEFFICIENTS

Type of Surface

Description

Coefficient of Runoff

Grass

Rough grass or undeveloped land

.10

Grass

Average developed lawn

.20

Grass

Sparse lawn on hard ground

.25

Paved

Rough surface on flat slopes

.80

Paved

Average pavement

.85

Roof

Flat roof with provisions for standing water

.85

Roof

All other roof surfaces

.95

Composite

Average value for entire site area

.55 - .75

(Note:  Composite value depends upon relative amount of lawn area)

Volume of Liquid in a Tank

shadowbox.jpg (746 bytes)   Gallons = 5.875 x Diameter squared x Height {dimensions must be in feet}

shadowbox.jpg (746 bytes)   Gallons = (Radius squared x 3.14) x Length divided by 231 {dimensions must be in inches}

wpe16.jpg (1395 bytes)   Tips

Remember to provide a properly sized expansion tank in the cold water supply to a hot water heater when a check valve or          backflow preventer is installed in the water service.

The jockey pump capacity for a fire pump should be 2 to 3 percent of the fire pump caacity and be set to start at 10 psi above the start pressure setting of the fire pump.

Natural gas is lighter than air.  Propane and Butane are heavier than air.  Propane and Butane normally are supplied in cylinders at a pressure of 80 to 120 psi.  LPG cylinders should not be located in vaults or pits unless they are mechanically ventilated.  When LPG cylinders are located in a room, vents must be located at floor level.

 

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